Intestinal tract of a ruminant

Category C - full version without watermark 720x576 (check terms and conditions at The embed version with watermark is free of charge. - Description: The ruminant stomach consists of three fore-stomachs, which are the rumen, reticulum, and omasum, and a true stomach, the abomasum. In the first two chambers, the rumen and the reticulum, the food is mixed with saliva and separates into layers of solid and liquid material. Solids clump together to form the cud (or bolus). The cud is then regurgitated, chewed slowly to completely mix it with saliva and to break down the particle size. Fiber, especially cellulose and hemi-cellulose, is primarily broken down into fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, in these chambers by microbes (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi). Protein and non-structural carbohydrate are also fermented.